Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1. Schematic diagrams of the mechanisms of action of CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade with or without chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy [36,58]. (A) T-cell activation, attenuation by normal inhibitory signals, and negative regulation using anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibody therapy. (B) CAR-mediated activation, attenuation by tumor and checkpoint mediated inhibitory signals. Checkpoint receptor binding and checkpoint ligand blocking antibodies may synergize with chimeric antigen receptor therapy. APC, antigen presenting cell; CTLA-4, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4; PD-1, programmed cell death receptor; PD-L1, programmed death-ligand 1; TAA, tumor-associated antigen; TCR, T-cell receptor.
Clin Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2020;27:22-31
© 2020 Clin Pediatr Hematol Oncol