Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Cause of iron deficiency anemia [3,13]

Cause
Physiologic increased iron demand Infant, Pre-school children, Growth spurts in adolescents, Pregnancy, Menstrual blood loss, Blood donation
Decreased iron intake Poverty and malnutrition, Diet (Iron-poor vegan or vegetarian)
Decreased iron absorption Surgical: Gastrectomy, Duodenal bypass, Bariatric surgery Medical: H.pylori, Celiac disease, Atrophic gastritis, Inflammatory bowel disease Cereal-based diet, Proton-pump inhibitors
Chronic blood loss Gastrointestinal tract: Hookworm, Esophagitis, Erosive gastritis, Peptic ulcer, Diverticulitis, Meckel’s diverticulum, Benign tumors, Intestinal cancer, Inflammatory bowel disease, Angiodysplasia, Hemorrhoids Genitourinary tract: Heavy mestural bleeding, Intravascular hemolysis (Paroxysmal nocturnalhemoglobinuria, Autoimmune hemolytic anemias), Familial hematuria (Alport syndrome) Systemic: Dialysis, Schistosomiasis, Hemorrhagic telangiectasia, Inherited coagulopathies Drug: Salicylates, NSIAD, corticosteroid, anticoagulants
Inflammation Congestive heart failure, Chronic kidney disease, Inflammatory bowel disease, Obesity
Genetic Iron-refractory iron-deficiency anemia

NSIAD, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Clin Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2020;27:101-12
© 2020 Clin Pediatr Hematol Oncol