search for




 

Review Article
Advances in the Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Clin Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2019;26:12-26.
Published online April 30, 2019
© 2019 Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology and Korean Society for Pediatric Neuro-Oncology

Hyery Kim

Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Hyery Kim
Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Korea
Tel: +82-2-3010-3373
Fax: +82-2-473-3725
E-mail:taban@hanmail.net
ORCID ID: orcid.org/0000-0003-2852-6832
Received March 26, 2019; Revised March 30, 2019; Accepted April 5, 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
In recent decades, survival rates for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have improved remarkably, as demonstrated by risk-stratified, prospective multicenter studies. Treatment protocols have evolved and become better matched to both prognostic factors
and treatment responses. Recently, new molecular prognostic factors have been discovered in leukemia genomic studies. New tumor subtypes with independent gene expression profiles have also been characterized. Furthermore, therapies targeted to specific candidate mutations are being identified to broaden therapeutic options for patients with poor prognoses. Many new drugs are in clinical trials and immunotherapy is attracting significant interest for the treatment of recurrent or refractory disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Keywords: Childhood, Precursor cell lymphoblastic leukemia, Prognosis, Survival
References
  1. Pui CH, Pei D, Campana D, et al. A revised definition for cure of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia 2014;28:2336-43.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  2. Park HJ, Moon EK, Yoon JY, et al. Incidence and survival of childhood cancer in Korea. Cancer Res Treat 2016;48:869-82.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  3. Lee H, Park HJ, Park EH, et al. Nationwide statistical analysis of lymphoid malignancies in Korea. Cancer Res Treat 2018;50:222-38.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  4. Lee JW, Kim SK, Jang PS, et al. Treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia with risk group based intensification and omission of cranial irradiation: a Korean study of 295 patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016;63:1966-73.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Mullighan CG. Genomic characterization of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Semin Hematol 2013;50:314-24.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  6. Moorman AV, Ensor HM, Richards SM, et al. Prognostic effect of chromosomal abnormalities in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results from the UK Medical Research Council ALL97/99 randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:429-38.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Paulsson K, Johansson B. High hyperdiploid childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2009;48:637-60.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Sutcliffe MJ, Shuster JJ, Sather HN, et al. High concordance from independent studies by the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) associating favorable prognosis with combined trisomies 4, 10, and 17 in children with NCI Standard-Risk B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group (COG) initiative. Leukemia 2005;19:734-40.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Nachman JB, Heerema NA, Sather H, et al. Outcome of treatment in children with hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 2007;110:1112-5.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Holmfeldt L, Wei L, Diaz-Flores E, et al. The genomic landscape of hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nat Genet 2013;45:242-52.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  11. Attarbaschi A, Mann G, Konig M, et al. Incidence and relevance of secondary chromosome abnormalities in childhood TEL/AML1+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an interphase FISH analysis. Leukemia 2004;18:1611-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Borowitz MJ, Devidas M, Hunger SP, et al. Clinical significance of minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and its relationship to other prognostic factors: a Children's Oncology Group study. Blood 2008;111:5477-85.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  13. Mann G, Attarbaschi A, Schrappe M, et al. Improved outcome with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a poor prognostic subgroup of infants with mixed-lineage-leukemia (MLL)rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the Interfant-99 Study. Blood 2010;116:2644-50.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Pieters R, Schrappe M, De Lorenzo P, et al. A treatment protocol for infants younger than 1 year with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Interfant-99): an observational study and a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet 2007;370:240-50.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Andersen MK, Autio K, Barbany G, et al. Paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with t(1;19)(q23;p13):clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of 47 cases from the Nordic countries treated according to NOPHO protocols. Br J Haematol 2011;155:235-43.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Jeha S, Pei D, Raimondi SC, et al. Increased risk for CNS relapse in pre-B cell leukemia with the t(1;19)/TCF3-PBX1. Leukemia 2009;23:1406-9.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Minson KA, Prasad P, Vear S, et al. t(17;19) in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia: a report of 3 cases and a review of the literature. Case Rep Hematol 2013;2013:563291.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  18. Zhang J, McCastlain K, Yoshihara H, et al. Deregulation of DUX4 and ERG in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nat Genet 2016;48:1481-9.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  19. Gu Z, Churchman ML, Roberts KG, et al. PAX5-driven subtypes of B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nat Genet 2019;51:296-307.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Heerema NA, Carroll AJ, Devidas M, et al. Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 is associated with inferior outcomes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated in contemporary standard-risk children's oncology group studies: a report from the children's oncology group. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:3397-402.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  21. Moorman AV, Robinson H, Schwab C, et al. Risk-directed treatment intensification significantly reduces the risk of relapse among children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21: a comparison of the MRC ALL97/99 and UKALL2003 trials. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:3389-96.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Harrison CJ, Moorman AV, Schwab C, et al. An international study of intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21): cytogenetic characterization and outcome. Leukemia 2014;28:1015-21.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  23. Mullighan CG, Miller CB, Radtke I, et al. BCR-ABL1 lymphoblastic leukaemia is characterized by the deletion of Ikaros. Nature 2008;453:110-4.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Roberts KG, Li Y, Payne-Turner D, et al. Targetable kinase-activating lesions in Ph-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med 2014;371:1005-15.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  25. Buitenkamp TD, Pieters R, Gallimore NE, et al. Outcome in children with Down's syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia: role of IKZF1 deletions and CRLF2 aberrations. Leukemia 2012;26:2204-11.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  26. Stanulla M, Dagdan E, Zaliova M, et al. IKZF1(plus) defines a new minimal residual disease-dependent very-poor prognostic profile in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 2018;36:1240-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Yeoh AEJ, Lu Y, Chin WHN, et al. Intensifying treatment of childhood B-lymphoblastic leukemia with IKZF1 deletion reduces relapse and improves overall survival: Results of Malaysia-Singapore ALL 2010 Study. J Clin Oncol 2018;36:2726-35.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Schrappe M, Arico M, Harbott J, et al. Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia:good initial steroid response allows early prediction of a favorable treatment outcome. Blood 1998;92:2730-41.
    Pubmed
  29. Reshmi SC, Harvey RC, Roberts KG, et al. Targetable kinase gene fusions in high-risk B-ALL: a study from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood 2017;129:3352-61.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  30. Roberts KG, Reshmi SC, Harvey RC, et al. Genomic and outcome analyses of Ph-like ALL in NCI standard-risk patients:a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood 2018;132:815-24.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  31. Roberts KG, Pei D, Campana D, et al. Outcomes of children with BCR-ABL1-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with risk-directed therapy based on the levels of minimal residual disease. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:3012-20.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  32. Liu Y, Easton J, Shao Y, et al. The genomic landscape of pediatric and young adult T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nat Genet 2017;49:1211-8.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  33. Gallo Llorente L, Luther H, Schneppenheim R, Zimmermann M, Felice M, Horstmann MA. Identification of novel NOTCH1 mutations: increasing our knowledge of the NOTCH signaling pathway. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:788-96.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  34. Petit A, Trinquand A, Chevret S, et al. Oncogenetic mutations combined with MRD improve outcome prediction in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 2018;131:289-300.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  35. Coustan-Smith E, Mullighan CG, Onciu M, et al. Early T-cell precursor leukaemia: a subtype of very high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Lancet Oncol 2009;10:147-56.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  36. Zhang J, Ding L, Holmfeldt L, et al. The genetic basis of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Nature 2012;481:157-63.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  37. Patrick K, Wade R, Goulden N, et al. Outcome for children and young people with Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated on a contemporary protocol, UKALL 2003. Br J Haematol 2014;166:421-4.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  38. Wood B, Winter S, Dunsmore K. Patients with early T-cell precursor (ETP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have high levels of minimal residual disease (MRD) at the end of induction—A Children's Oncology Group (COG) Study. Blood 2009;144:9.
  39. Cheok MH, Evans WE. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a model for the pharmacogenomics of cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2006;6:117-29.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  40. Yang JJ, Landier W, Yang W, et al. Inherited NUDT15 variant is a genetic determinant of mercaptopurine intolerance in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 2015;33:1235-42.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  41. Tanaka Y, Kato M, Hasegawa D, et al. Susceptibility to 6-MP toxicity conferred by a NUDT15 variant in Japanese children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol 2015;171:109-15.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  42. Relling MV, Schwab M, Whirl-Carrillo M, et al. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline for Thiopurine Dosing Based on TPMT and NUDT15 Genotypes: 2018 Update. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019;105:1095-105.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  43. Pui CH, Schrappe M, Ribeiro RC, Niemeyer CM. Childhood and adolescent lymphoid and myeloid leukemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2004:118-45.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  44. O'Connor D, Enshaei A, Bartram J, et al. Genotype-specific minimal residual disease interpretation improves stratification in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 2018;36:34-43.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  45. Conter V, Bartram CR, Valsecchi MG, et al. Molecular response to treatment redefines all prognostic factors in children and adolescents with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results in 3184 patients of the AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 study. Blood 2010;115:3206-14.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  46. Schrappe M, Valsecchi MG, Bartram CR, et al. Late MRD response determines relapse risk overall and in subsets of childhood T-cell ALL: results of the AIEOP-BFM-ALL 2000 study. Blood 2011;118:2077-84.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  47. Schrappe M, Reiter A, Ludwig WD, et al. Improved outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia despite reduced use of anthracyclines and cranial radiotherapy: results of trial ALL-BFM 90. German-Austrian-Swiss ALL-BFM Study Group. Blood 2000;95:3310-22.
    Pubmed
  48. George P, Hernandez K, Hustu O, Borella L, Holton C, Pinkel D. A study of "total therapy" of acute lymphocytic leukemia in children. J Pediatr 1968;72:399-408.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  49. Aur RJ, Simone J, Hustu HO, et al. Central nervous system therapy and combination chemotherapy of childhood lymphocytic leukemia. Blood 1971;37:272-81.
    Pubmed
  50. Henze G, Langermann HJ, Ritter J, Schellong G, Riehm H. Treatment strategy for different risk groups in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A Report From the BFM Study Group. Haematol Blood Transfus 1981;26:87-93.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  51. Henze G, Langermann HJ, Bramswig J, et al. The BFM 76/79 acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy study (author's transl). Klin Padiatr 1981;193:145-54.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  52. Moricke A, Zimmermann M, Valsecchi MG, et al. Dexamethasone vs prednisone in induction treatment of pediatric ALL: results of the randomized trial AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000. Blood 2016;127:2101-12.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  53. Larsen EC, Devidas M, Chen S, et al. Dexamethasone and high-dose methotrexate improve outcome for children and young adults with high-risk B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia:A Report From Children's Oncology Group Study AALL0232. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:2380-8.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  54. Domenech C, Suciu S, De Moerloose B, et al. Dexamethasone (6 mg/m2/day) and prednisolone (60 mg/m2/day) were equally effective as induction therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the EORTC CLG 58951 randomized trial. Haematologica 2014;99:1220-7.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  55. Hijiya N, van der Sluis IM. Asparaginase-associated toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma 2016;57:748-57.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  56. Asselin BL. The three asparaginases. Comparative pharmacology and optimal use in childhood leukemia. Adv Exp Med Biol 1999;457:621-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  57. Vrooman LM, Stevenson KE, Supko JG, et al. Postinduction dexamethasone and individualized dosing of Escherichia Coli L-asparaginase each improve outcome of children and adolescents with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from a randomized study--Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 00-01. J Clin Oncol 2013;31:1202-10.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  58. Avramis VI, Sencer S, Periclou AP, et al. A randomized comparison of native Escherichia coli asparaginase and polyethylene glycol conjugated asparaginase for treatment of children with newly diagnosed standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Cancer Group study. Blood 2002;99:1986-94.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  59. Moghrabi A, Levy DE, Asselin B, et al. Results of the DanaFarber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 95-01 for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 2007;109:896-904.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  60. Nachman JB, Sather HN, Sensel MG, et al. Augmented post-induction therapy for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a slow response to initial therapy. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1663-71.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  61. Maloney KW, Devidas M, Mattano LA Jr, et al. Excellent event free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for children with standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SR ALL) despite the absence of a significant impact on outcome with the addition of an intensified consolidation: Results of Children's Oncology Group (COG) AALL0331. Blood 2013;122:837.
  62. Reiter A, Schrappe M, Ludwig WD, et al. Chemotherapy in 998 unselected childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Results and conclusions of the multicenter trial ALL-BFM 86. Blood 1994;84:3122-33.
    Pubmed
  63. Matloub Y, Bostrom BC, Hunger SP, et al. Escalating intravenous methotrexate improves event-free survival in children with standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood 2011;118:243-51.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  64. Seibel NL, Steinherz PG, Sather HN, et al. Early postinduction intensification therapy improves survival for children and adolescents with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood 2008;111:2548-55.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  65. Bhatia S, Landier W, Hageman L, et al. Systemic exposure to thiopurines and risk of relapse in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A Children's Oncology Group Study. JAMA Oncol 2015;1:287-95.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  66. Pui CH, Campana D, Pei D, et al. Treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia without cranial irradiation. N Engl J Med 2009;360:2730-41.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  67. Pui CH, Robison LL, Look AT. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Lancet 2008;371:1030-43.
    CrossRef
  68. Pui CH, Howard SC. Current management and challenges of malignant disease in the CNS in paediatric leukaemia. Lancet Oncol 2008;9:257-68.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  69. Gajjar A, Harrison PL, Sandlund JT, et al. Traumatic lumbar puncture at diagnosis adversely affects outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 2000;96:3381-4.
    Pubmed
  70. Yeh TC, Liang DC, Hou JY, et al. Treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with delayed first intrathecal therapy and omission of prophylactic cranial irradiation:Results of the TPOG-ALL-2002 study. Cancer 2018;124:4538-47.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  71. Schrappe M, Hunger SP, Pui CH, et al. Outcomes after induction failure in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med 2012;366:1371-81.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  72. McNeer JL, Devidas M, Dai Y, et al. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation does not improve the poor outcome of children with hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A report from Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2019:JCO1800884.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  73. Mullighan CG, Jeha S, Pei D, et al. Outcome of children with hypodiploid ALL treated with risk-directed therapy based on MRD levels. Blood 2015;126:2896-9.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  74. Merli P, Algeri M, Del Bufalo F, Locatelli F. Hematopoietic Stem cell transplantation in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Curr Hematol Malig Rep 2019. [Epub ahead of print]
    Pubmed CrossRef
  75. Hunger SP, Lu X, Devidas M, et al. Improved survival for children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia between 1990 and 2005: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:1663-9.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  76. Silverman LB, Stevenson KE, O'Brien JE, et al. Long-term results of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium protocols for children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (1985-2000). Leukemia 2010;24:320-34.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  77. Winter SS, Dunsmore KP, Devidas M, et al. Improved survival for children and young adults with T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results from the Children's Oncology Group AALL0434 Methotrexate Randomization. J Clin Oncol 2018;36:2926-34.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  78. LeClerc JM, Billett AL, Gelber RD, et al. Treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of Dana-Farber ALL Consortium Protocol 87-01. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:237-46.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  79. Schultz KR, Carroll A, Heerema NA, et al. Long-term follow-up of imatinib in pediatric Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Children's Oncology Group study AALL0031. Leukemia 2014;28:1467-71.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  80. Slayton WB, Schultz KR, Kairalla JA, et al. Dasatinib plus intensive chemotherapy in children, adolescents, and young adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results of Children's Oncology Group Trial AALL0622. J Clin Oncol 2018;36:2306-14.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  81. Silverman LB. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infancy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2007;49:1070-3.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  82. Van der Velden VH, Corral L, Valsecchi MG, et al. Prognostic significance of minimal residual disease in infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated within the Interfant-99 protocol. Leukemia 2009;23:1073-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  83. Lee P, Bhansali R, Izraeli S, Hijiya N, Crispino JD. The biology, pathogenesis and clinical aspects of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with Down syndrome. Leukemia 2016;30:1816-23.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  84. Buitenkamp TD, Izraeli S, Zimmermann M, et al. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with Down syndrome: a retrospective analysis from the Ponte di Legno Study Group. Blood 2014;123:70-7.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  85. Pichler H, Reismuller B, Steiner M, et al. The inferior prognosis of adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is caused by a higher rate of treatment-related mortality and not an increased relapse rate--a population-based analysis of 25 years of the Austrian ALL-BFM (Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster) Study Group. Br J Haematol 2013;161:556-65.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  86. Ramanujachar R, Richards S, Hann I, Webb D. Adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: emerging from the shadow of paediatric and adult treatment protocols. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006;47:748-56.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  87. von Stackelberg A, Locatelli F, Zugmaier G, et al. Phase I/phase II study of blinatumomab in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:4381-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  88. Gore L, Locatelli F, Zugmaier G, et al. Survival after blinatumomab treatment in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood Cancer J 2018;8:80.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  89. Bhojwani D, Sposto R, Shah NN, et al. Inotuzumab ozogamicin in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia 2019;33:884-92.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  90. Maude SL, Laetsch TW, Buechner J, et al. Tisagenlecleucel in children and young adults with B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med 2018;378:439-48.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  91. Maude SL, Frey N, Shaw PA, et al. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells for sustained remissions in leukemia. N Engl J Med 2014;371:1507-17.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  92. Mejstrikova E, Hrusak O, Borowitz MJ, et al. CD19-negative relapse of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia following blinatumomab treatment. Blood Cancer J 2017;7:659.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  93. Ruella M, Maus MV. Catch me if you can: Leukemia escape after CD19-directed T cell immunotherapies. Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2016;14:357-62.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef


October 2019, 26 (2)
Full Text PDF
Citation
Send to a friend
Twitter
Facebook

Cited By Articles
  • CrossRef (0)

Author ORCID Information
  • Hyery Kim 

Funding Information